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The key technical points of chicks brooding

2020-12-18

The brooding period of a chicken refers to the period from the hull to 6 weeks of age. Chicks have the characteristics of strong metabolism, fast growth, strong sensitivity, sparse villi, poor body temperature regulation, weak digestion and low disease resistance. These characteristics determine the breeding management, sanitation and disinfection and epidemic prevention work during the brooding period.
 
 
1. Basic conditions for brooding
Robust chicks, suitable temperature and humidity, fresh air, suitable density, good feeding and management measures, strict epidemic prevention and sanitation systems and a quiet environment are the basic conditions for raising a good chick. The most important ones are temperature, ventilation and health. The chicks emerge from the shell to the temperature (0-4 weeks old for broilers, 0-6 weeks old for laying hens). It is the most important stage in the whole chicken raising process. Scientific feeding and management must be carried out according to their life characteristics and growth rules. Improve the brooding rate and promote growth and development to achieve the best brooding effect.
 
 
2. Preparation before entering the chicken
Check whether the chicken house is leaking rain or air, there are no gaps, whether the doors and windows are tight, whether there are rat holes on the ground and corners, etc., to ensure that the heat preservation, dryness, sanitation, moderate brightness and good ventilation are required. The chicken house should be handled in accordance with the four-step procedure of cleaning, washing, disinfecting and fumigating. Clean the floor, walls, doors, windows and roofs, and flush the equipment and facilities without leaving dead corners. After the chicken house is dry, spray the walls and the ground with a broad-spectrum disinfectant. Use formalin solution 28~42mL/m3 or solid for the house and utensils Fumigation with 10g of formaldehyde, spray and disinfect the entire chicken house once again before entering the chicken. Ignite the stove or start other heating equipment to preheat the chicken house one day before entering the chicken, so that the temperature of the chicken house reaches 30°C or higher. Prepare feed, medicines, vaccines, litter, fuel, and record forms.
 
 
3. Stocking density
The best breeding density for laying hens is 25-30 birds/m2, and for broilers is 20-25 birds/m2.
 
 
4. Drinking water and starting food
The sooner the chicks drink for the first time, the better, especially in hot weather or after long-distance transportation. Add salt and aminovitamins to drinking water for 3 to 4 days to reduce dehydration and stress. It is best to drink cold boiled water within 7 days of age and keep the drinking water clean. The chicks start to eat after drinking water for 2 to 3 hours. Feed the broiler early feed for 0 to 2 weeks old, and feed the broiler feed for 3-6 weeks old; feed the broiler feed for 0 to 3 weeks old, and feed the mid feed and large broiler feed after 3 weeks of age , And appropriately restrict feeding to reduce ascites syndrome and leg disorders. Body weight, uniformity, smoothness and integrity of feathers are one of the important indicators to measure the growth and development of chicks. The first 5 weeks is the critical period for the growth and development of the chicks, and is the stage where the relative weight gain is the fastest. If the chicks are not well cultivated at this stage, it will directly affect the future growth and production performance. The higher the weight of the laying hens at the end of 5 weeks, the earlier the start of laying and the longer the peak laying. Therefore, the first 5 weeks of laying hens are a critical period for high yield, and the growth system of the chicks must be fully developed.
Come, that is, "five weeks for life."
 
 
5. Proper temperature and humidity
The brooding temperature starts from the initial 33~35℃, and the temperature drops by 2~3℃ every week. According to the chicken flock and weather conditions, "watch the chicken temperature", and take the chicken flock's comfort as the best criterion. If the flock is far away from the heat source, panting, and drinking more water, the temperature is high; if the flock is close to the heat source, crowded together, and chirps constantly, it means the temperature is low; if the flock is evenly dispersed, chase, frolic, and cry Cheerful, normal food and drinking water indicate that the temperature is appropriate. The brooding temperature is too high or too low for more than 4 hours, which can cause irreversible losses. Long-term high temperature brooding will lead to excessive drinking, reduced feed intake, slow growth, and respiratory diseases. If the temperature is low for a long time, especially in the first 7 weeks, the flocks are easy to get together, eat insufficiently, and the sizes are uneven, and the chances of developing pulloria, coliform, laryngitis and spreading are increased, and the mortality rate increase. However, the room temperature should be raised appropriately during vaccination, pecking and illness to stimulate the chicken's appetite. The relative humidity of brooding chicks is 55%-65%. High humidity affects the growth of chicks, especially in humid areas and the rainy season. Humidity is conducive to the breeding and reproduction of pathogenic microorganisms and parasite eggs, and it is easy to induce mycosis and parasitic diseases. If the humidity is lower than 40%, the air will be too dry, and the dust in the air will increase, which is prone to respiratory diseases. Sprinkle or water the ground more to increase the humidity.
 
 
6. Maintain ventilation
Keeping indoor air fresh is an important condition for raising chicks. Enough oxygen can maintain normal metabolism and keep healthy chickens. Air circulation can discharge carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, ammonia, water, dust (the best carrier of germs), pathogenic microorganisms and water vapor, and can control the humidity in the house to keep the litter in good condition. Whether the indoor air is fresh or not is judged by whether people can feel a strong pungent smell, tears, and stuffiness when entering the chicken house. People feel comfortable to prove that indoor air quality is good. For chicks after 2 weeks of age, special attention should be paid to ventilation.
 
 
7. Timely cut beak
Broilers are generally 6 days old, and laying hens are generally beaked at 7 days. One day before and two days after the beak is cut off, add appropriate amount of multivitamins and broad-spectrum antibiotics to the drinking water or feed to slow down stress, reduce bleeding, accelerate wound healing and prevent the occurrence of respiratory diseases. Beak cutting temperature should be appropriate. Beak cutting requires 1/2 of the upper beak and 1/3 of the lower beak to form a short top and a long bottom. The beak is 2mm away from the nostril.
 
 
8. Increase lighting
In the early stage of brooding, large light bulbs should be used to irradiate the chicks to help the chicks start feeding as soon as possible, familiarize themselves with the environment, and extend the feeding time to promote growth and development. However, if the light is too strong, the chickens are prone to pecking habit, and the amount of exercise increases and more feed is consumed; if the light is too weak, it is not conducive to the feeding and drinking of the chicks, and piles are prone to occur. The suitable light time is 24 hours of 1-3 days old, and then gradually decrease, turn off the light for half an hour every night. The light intensity should follow the principle of strong and weak, and the light intensity after 1 week of age is suitable for chickens to eat.
 
 
9. Hygiene and epidemic prevention
Chicks have poor disease resistance and are susceptible to various diseases, so they should be carefully raised and managed. Always keep the chicken house clean and sanitary, wash and disinfect the water tank and feeder regularly, remove the feces and dirt in the house in time, and disinfect the house with chickens 2 to 3 times a week. Vaccination injections and drug prevention are carried out regularly, sensitive antibiotics are used to control pullorum and mycoplasma at the age of 1 to 4 weeks, and oregano essential oil is used to control the occurrence of pneumonia and enterotoxin syndrome in chickens at the age of 1 to 18 days, and to do a good job in chicken farm biology. Various security measures.


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