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Chicken farm immunization failure case

2021-02-03

Recently, the author learned from clinical investigations that many chicken farms are not clear about or care about some seemingly clichéd concepts of disease prevention and control. The author believes that if such colleagues in the breeding industry can reflect on and summarize their years of experience, they will understand that things could have been better.
 
Case number one:
There is a laying hen farm that when immunizing chickens with drinking water, boiled fresh milk is added to the water. I asked why not milk powder? The farmer calculated that there is a dairy farm nearby. It was run by a friend. The fresh milk is cheap, only 1.23 yuan per catty, sometimes a catty per catty, and sometimes more milk is produced, and the milk price is low, a few cents per catty. jin. Fresh milk and powdered milk can protect the virus in the vaccine, and it is more cost-effective to use fresh milk locally. He believes that 0.3% milk powder is added to protect the vaccine, and the account is calculated like this: the price of milk powder in the supermarket varies, usually 27-32 yuan / 400 grams / bag, and 30 yuan for 400 grams , 100 kilograms of water is added to 3 taels, these 3 taels cost 11.25 yuan; 50-day-old chickens are immune to drinking water. After 3 to 4 hours of water loss, each chicken will drink 20 ml of vaccine water, and 10,000 chickens will be 200,000 milliliters is 400 kilograms of water. This will cost 45 yuan for milk powder. If the adult chickens regularly drink the new city vaccine, it will not stop. With fresh milk, one or two per catty is used. 400 catties of water cost 12 catties or 12 yuan. This chicken farm raises more than 30,000 chickens, and all the money saved for vaccine protection is profit.
 
Is this friend's arithmetic wrong? No. But isn't it necessary to use skimmed milk powder to protect drinking water vaccines? My friend said that the food that is not skimmed is nourishment, and you will get it if you drink it! After the fresh milk or whole milk powder is boiled, a layer of skin must be removed, that is, the lipid layer is removed. The lipid layer also has a protective effect on the virus, but the lipids are more likely to wrap the virus, causing the water-soluble vaccine to stratify, uneven, and affect The immune effect will also block the water line (this chicken farm uses a special plastic hanging bowl for immunization); in order to save the cost of vaccine protection, the immune response is not sound and the gain is not worth the loss, so it is more appropriate to use skimmed milk powder.
 
Case 2:
In a new broiler farm, the antibody was not high enough after drinking water immunized with the early Newcastle disease attenuated vaccine, and there were cases of atypical Newcastle disease. This farmer made seedlings according to the recommendations in the breeding management manual provided by the hatchery, and always doubled the amount. His reason is that both Newcastle Disease and Bursa of Fabricius are used twice the prescribed amount. He also heard that increasing the dose will increase the wild poison in the environment and cause immune paralysis. The concept accepted by this newcomer is not bad, but you should know that the antigen loss during the immunization process is usually 15%-20%, and the doses used in the early nose drops and drinking water cannot be equal; and the pH in the digestive tract The neutralization loss of the vaccine should also be considered.
 
The bursal vaccine is more acid-resistant, and the neutralization loss of drinking water immunity through gastrointestinal and gastrointestinal is not large, while the new city vaccine enters the stomach and a lot of it is neutralized, mainly relying on the nasal mucosa and palate reaction to form immunity. This requires increased stimulation of this part to obtain an immune response as soon as possible. The veterinarian recommended that the dose be increased during brooding (from 2 times the amount to 3 to 5 times), and the immune titer was improved.
 
Case Three:
There is a layer farm that vaccinates chickens with a new oil vaccine every three months, relying on the professional epidemic prevention team in the village to do it. Usually start to catch the chicken after two o’clock in the afternoon, and the injection site and angle and depth are confused. The oil seedlings are not pre-warmed. The breast muscles and leg muscles of the chickens have the formation of unabsorbed oil adjuvant lumps, and the immune potency Uneven. It is best to inject the oil vaccine during the laying period, under the skin of the neck, close to the wings, to separate the neck skin from the muscle, and then inject. Vaccines are usually brought into a room temperature environment from 2°C to 8°C above zero. Shake well and pre-warm. Put it in 37°C-40°C warm water 4 to 5 hours before use to make it close to the body temperature of the chicken. Also add vitamin C to relieve stress. . Generally speaking, the antibody is easy to rise in the morning, but the laying hens should be prepared after 4 pm, because at this time the egg production tasks of the flock are almost completed. It's not easy to burst the group at 4 pm.
 
Case Four:
There is a layer farm, no matter how to make seedlings, the chickens are always sick. Some veterinarians suggested that immune-enhancing agents could be used to assist immunity, so they blindly listened to the manufacturer’s salesperson and fed them with certain additives that were marked as having immune-enhancing efficiency, but the effect was not obvious. I asked him, have you used levamisole? He said he had heard of it. Is that the old medicine? It’s troublesome to grind it into fine noodles. Who knows the effect?
 
The author believes that good medicine is not new and expensive! The problem is that there are real or fake immune enhancers currently on the market. There is also a vague amount of usefulness. For example, a certain Chinese herbal medicine can enhance the level of humoral immunity and cellular immunity. However, there are different opinions on the dosage and the course of treatment. As for the true ingredients in the preparation, only God knows. Other preparations are not rich in clinical experiment data, and they are eager to market for promotion without strict comparison and confirmation of their effects, and they are exaggerated in publicity. Levamisole can be described as a "tested" product that is really cheap. Not only is the deworming broad-spectrum and effective, but the immunity is also reliable. The author has consulted the data and showed that a comparative experiment was done with levamisole. Compared with the control group before and after the two vaccination from 21 days to 28 days, the Newcastle disease antibody titer maintained no matter the peak value or the high value. The time was longer than that of the control group. According to many years of literature records, it has been shown that oral administration of levamisole at a dose of 7 mg/kg body weight for the first immunization of chicks can eliminate the interference of maternal antibodies and improve the immune effect, especially in the high incidence period and high incidence area of ​​the bursa of fabric. For aerosol-immunized chickens with Newcastle disease, intramuscular injections of Newcastle disease chickens, and intramuscular injections of new method-linked vaccines, oral administration of levamisole (depending on the age of 7~20 mg/kg) can be used 3 days before and after vaccination. The flock gains more immunity.
 
Our colleagues in the aquaculture industry have accumulated a wealth of diverse practical experience, which can form theories to guide practice, and can also supplement and modify theories to better guide practice. Among them, the popularization and promotion of aquaculture science is particularly important. , I hope our colleagues in the industry will work together to promote this popularization and promotion.


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