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Brooding of native chicken

2020-11-11

Through production practice, brooding is the key to raising native chickens. The quality of chicken breeding and management is an important link in the production of chickens. It not only affects the growth and survival rate of chickens, but also affects production performance and economic benefits. Therefore, corresponding measures must be taken according to the physiological characteristics of the chicks to do a good job in the feeding and management of the chicks, so as to improve the survival rate of the chicks and better improve the production performance of the chickens.

1 Preparation before brooding
      1.1   Brooding house maintenance and brooding equipment preparation and disinfection: 1 week before the arrival of the chicks, the brooding house should be repaired and the brooding equipment should be prepared: pans, feeding troughs, drinking fountains, etc., and thoroughly cleaned together, and then used Malin and potassium permanganate are fumigated and disinfected for 24 hours (the ratio of 15g potassium permanganate to 30ml formalin is appropriate for each m3 of space), and finally disinfectants such as Baidusha are used for thorough disinfection.
      1.2   Preparation of feed, medicines and vaccines: Before brooding, prepare chick feeds of different ages with complete nutrition, easy digestion and good palatability, common brooding drugs (such as norfloxacin, etc.) and disinfectants (such as Baidusha, etc.) ), and all vaccines involved in the epidemic prevention program (such as Marek’s disease vaccine, etc.).
      1.3   Preheat the brooding house: 1~3d before entering the chicks (generally 1d in summer, 2d in spring, 3d in winter), the chicken house starts to warm up and preheat, so that the indoor temperature reaches about 32℃. During the temperature test, in order to avoid contamination of the disinfected houses and appliances, strictly follow the sanitation and epidemic prevention requirements.
2 Create an environment suitable for the growth of chicks
      2.1   Temperature: The function of the chick to regulate body temperature is not perfect, the ability to adapt to the external environment is poor, the disease resistance is weak, the immune function is poor, easy to contract diseases, and sensitive to temperature changes. A suitable temperature is the first condition for good chicks, and it must be strictly controlled. The temperature is too high, low or too variable, which is not conducive to the growth and development of the chicks. Whether the brooding temperature is suitable or not can be judged by the state of the chicks. The temperature is suitable, the chicks are lively and active, the cry is brisk, the drinking water is moderate, the head is stretched and the legs are relaxed when sleeping, not squeezed, nor dispersed; the temperature is low, the chicks gather Around the heat source, people are crowded and crowded, seldom eat food, and keep crying; the temperature is too high, the chicks are far away from the heat source, their mouths are raised, their heads are irritable, and the amount of water drinking increases significantly.
      2.2 Humidity: Humidity has a great influence on the growth and development of chicks, especially for chicks around 1 week old. If the humidity is too low, the chicks will lose water and cause the yolk malabsorption; if the humidity is too high, the chicks will lose their appetite, and they are prone to diarrhea and even death. The relative humidity in the early brooding period is higher than that in the late brooding period, mainly because the indoor temperature in the early brooding period is higher and the water evaporates quickly. The relative humidity should be higher at this time. Under normal circumstances, in the early stages of brooding, the humidity is often too low, causing the chicks to drink frequently, the legs are dry and the fluff is brittle. At this time, the best measure to take is to bring the chickens to spray disinfection or place more water trays to increase the humidity, and gradually reduce the humidity as the chicks grow.
      2.3   Light: Suitable light can promote the feeding, drinking and exercise of the chicks, which is beneficial to the growth and development of the chicks, and achieves the purpose of rapid weight gain. In production practice, natural light is generally combined with the light supply of incandescent lamps. The principle of controlling the light supply of incandescent lamps is: 24h light is best for the first 3 days, 15h light from the 4th day to 2 weeks of age, and gradually decreases by 2h every week. Transition to natural light, and use natural light after 4 weeks to prevent excessively active chickens from pecking.
      2.4 Ventilation: Ventilation is to remove the dirty air in the house, especially the toxic and harmful gases such as carbon dioxide, ammonia and hydrogen sulfide. Good ventilation can keep the air in the brooding room fresh, and also help regulate the temperature and humidity in the room, which is conducive to the health and growth of the chicks. Ventilation is mainly controlled according to the age of the chicks, the season and the changes of the weather. In production practice, it can be adjusted by opening and closing doors and windows, but it is necessary to prevent thieves from entering the room.
      2.5  Density: A reasonable stocking density can provide the chicks with equal opportunities for drinking and eating, which is beneficial to improve the uniformity, and can also prevent the occurrence of wickedness such as pecking the anus and feathers of the chicks. If the density is too small, the housing utilization will be low, resulting in waste; if the density is too high, it will cause crowding, air pollution, uneven feeding and drinking water, etc., leading to growth retardation and the spread of diseases.
      2.6  All-in and all-out system: From the beginning to the end of the brooding, the chickens are always raised in the same house, and the chicks are brought in and hatched at the same time, that is, a chicken house is all chickens of the same age. Adopting the all-in, all-out system is conducive to the growth and development of chickens, epidemic prevention, and disease prevention.
3  Feeding management of chicks
      3.1   Sanitation and disinfection: disinfection pools should be set up at the entrance and exit of the chicken coop to ensure strict disinfection of the chicken coop in and out to prevent the occurrence of chicken diseases. The easiest way is to put an appropriate amount of disinfectant with a certain concentration in a plastic basin and place it at the entrance and exit of the chicken house. Clean the brooding house every day and spray the chicken for disinfection.
      3.2   Ensure clean drinking water: Regularly providing sufficient clean drinking water is an important part of improving the survival rate of chicks. During production, it is recommended to provide the chicks with drinking water in the following way: the chicks shall be fed warm water (about 25℃) within 1 week of age, and appropriate amounts of glucose, 0.1% vitamin C and antibacterial drugs shall be added to the water, and the feeding amount shall be consumed within 1 to 2 hours. For the degree; 1 week later, directly feed clean tap water, clean and disinfect the drinking fountain once a day.
      3.3   Feeding method: The chicks have strong metabolism and fast growth and development, but the stomach volume is small and the digestion is weak. Therefore, the requirements for feed are high. According to the feeding standards of different chicken breeds, combined with local feed resources, they should be reasonably formulated with comprehensive nutritional value and price. Cheap feed for the chicks to eat. Generally, the chicks drink water before they start to eat. Use the feed tray to install an appropriate amount of soaked pellets to allow the chicks to eat freely to ensure that there is sufficient feed; after 1 week, mix 1%~2% grit and an appropriate amount in the feed The green material to aid digestion. Keep feeding less frequently to prevent feed corruption and deterioration. Feed pans and feeding troughs are cleaned and disinfected once a day.
      3.4” Beak cutting in time: Beak cutting is to prevent chickens from picky eating, wasting feed and pecking. Generally, chicks are beaked for the first time at 1 week of age, and then corrected again at 2 weeks of age. To prevent bleeding and infection when cutting the beak, add vitamin K and a variety of vitamins to the feed 2 days before cutting the beak, which is conducive to blood clotting. After the beak is cut off, it can be fed with 0.02% norfloxacin.
      3.5   Strengthen manure removal: Chicken manure is easy to decompose under high temperature conditions to produce large amounts of carbon dioxide, ammonia and other harmful gases, which are not conducive to the growth and development of chicks. To ensure the health of chicks, manure removal work must be done to keep the air fresh in the chicken house.
4  Do a good job in epidemic prevention and disease prevention
      4.1   Immunization: Immunization is an effective means of preventing infectious diseases in chickens. It should be operated strictly during the brooding stage. Generally, a set of immunization procedures suitable for chickens should be established according to the actual local conditions to ensure the quality of vaccination. Main vaccinations: Marek's disease vaccine, Newcastle disease vaccine, branch vaccine, Newcastle disease H vaccine, infectious bursal disease vaccine, fowlpox attenuated vaccine, Newcastle disease I vaccine, etc.
      4.2   Disease prevention: Common diseases of chicks include pullorum, coccidiosis and Newcastle disease, etc., which should be scientifically prevented with drugs. Generally, focus on prevention of pullorum within 2 weeks, and prevention of coccidiosis within 2 to 8 weeks. Normally pay attention to strict disinfection, and ensure that outsiders are not allowed to enter and leave the chicken house casually. Clean frequently every day to ensure that the environment of the chicken house is clean and hygienic; wash utensils frequently and disinfect regularly.


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