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Beware of infectious rhinitis in winter chickens

2020-11-09

Avian infectious rhinitis is an acute upper respiratory disease caused by Haemophilus paragallinarum. It is widely distributed, has a high incidence, and a long course of disease. It can be onset throughout the year, but it occurs frequently in autumn and winter and early spring. The climate is cold and humid, chicken flocks are too dense, and poor ventilation can cause the disease.

 
Onset characteristics
 
Transmission route and source of infection: The disease is mainly transmitted by the excrement of the respiratory and digestive tracts of sick chickens. Sick chickens (especially chickens with chronic diseases) and recessive chickens are the main sources of infection. The pathogenic bacteria they excrete are spread through air, dust, drinking water, and feed. Drinking water contaminated by pathogens is often the main reason for the disease in newly infected chickens.
 
Although there is no obvious seasonality in the occurrence of this disease, it occurs more frequently from October to May of the following year, especially from December to February of the following year, which is the high-incidence period of the disease. This may be related to the cold weather which is beneficial to the survival of the bacteria in vitro. . Because farmers generally pay attention to heat preservation in the cold season, they do not pay enough attention to ventilation, which is related to the air pollution in the house.
 
Clinical symptoms and pathological changes
 
In the early stage of the disease, the feed intake of the chickens decreased, and some chickens showed tears, tears accumulated in the eye sockets, sneezing, nasal fluttering, thin mucus in the nostrils, etc. As the disease course prolonged, one or both sides of the sinuses were swollen. , Eyelids are swollen, nostrils flow viscous secretions, dry and form yellow pus crusts, have an unpleasant odor, and have difficulty breathing. Diarrhea occurs in the later period, yellow-green dung is pulled, and the egg production rate drops by about 20%.
 
Laboratory diagnosis
 
Smear microscopy to take out the secretions of sick corns, nasal cavity, and infraorbital sinus. After smear staining, microscopy revealed that Gram-negative cocci were found to be pleomorphic, occasionally fibrillar, with pods around the bacteria membrane.
 
Bacteria isolation and culture. The secretions from the nasal cavity and infraorbital sinus of sick chickens were collected aseptically and directly inoculated on a chocolate agar plate medium. After culturing for 48 hours in an environment of 37°C and 10% CO2, they formed smooth, protruding, light gray, Translucent colonies with a diameter of 0.5 mm to 1.0 mm. Some colonies are surrounded by rainbows. Pick a single colony for smear microscopy. The bacteria are still Gram-negative, pleomorphic, and some are filamentous.
 
Treatment measures
 
medical treatement:
 
1. General sulfa drugs are the first choice for the treatment of this disease (such as sulfamethazine, sulfamethoxamine, sulfamonomethoxine, etc.), and the amount is doubled for the first time. For example, Sufukang (compound sulfadiazine suspension): the first amount is 300 grams per bottle with water, and the maintenance amount is 500 grams per bottle for 4 days. After an interval of 3 days, use Sufukang again for 3 days. .
 
2. Severely ill chicken: Streptomycin is injected intramuscularly at 20 mg/kg.w twice a day for 3 days.
 
Vaccine immunization: A-C type bivalent oil emulsion inactivated vaccine is injected intramuscularly once at the age of 25 to 50 days.
 
Strengthen feeding management, reduce feeding density, improve the ventilation conditions of the chicken house, do a good job of disinfection, regularly disinfect the inside and outside of the chicken house, reduce the spread of germs, and provide sufficient nutrients to the chickens.


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