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Top-level design of standardized construction of laying hen farms


In recent years, the production technology level and core competitiveness of Chinese livestock and poultry enterprises have been further improved, and the standardized demonstration farm has become a window to display the advanced productivity of animal husbandry, and has achieved huge social and economic benefits. The standardization process of the laying hen industry has also made great achievements. Take Shanghai and Hubei as examples: Shanghai's laying hen industry has basically achieved scale, with an average of more than 50,000 in a single farm, and 90% of the laying hen farms have more than 10,000. Above; Hubei Province has integrated and assembled the "Layer 153 Standardized Breeding Model", with an average of more than 20,000 chickens in a single farm, and more than 60% of the layer farms with more than 10,000 chickens. How to further improve the standardization of the laying hen industry from the four aspects of production line, industrial knowledge, social support and risk control will be a key and hot issue for a considerable period of time in the future.

H type battery Automatic chicken farming Design
The standardization of the laying hen farm production line includes two main aspects: facility construction and standardized production. The core content is that the chicken farm implements an all-in and all-out feeding system. Compared with the current construction of standardized chicken farms, more emphasis is placed on the professionalism and standardization of chicken farms. Based on the construction of standardized chicken farms, systematic disease prevention and control in the poultry industry is carried out to reduce the incidence of regional diseases. The main content of the construction of standardized chicken farms is the facility of chicken farms, including chicken cage facilities, feeding facilities, temperature control facilities, implementation of epidemic prevention and chicken manure treatment facilities. Through standardized construction, the egg production capacity per unit land area has been generally improved. On this basis, the standardization of the laying hen production line promotes the all-in and all-out laying hen production mode, and only laying hens of the same age are raised within a chicken farm.
The general mode of laying hen farm production in my country is to build chick houses, rearing hen houses and laying hen houses according to the scale of the land. No matter the scale, all of them are "set-raised", and chickens will lay eggs 365 days a year. Most laying hen companies raise brooding hens and laying hens in one farm area, and even have processing and logistics: a batch of chickens is imported every 2 to 4 months, and some chicken farms both sell and buy eggs. This allows both endogenous and exogenous pathogenic microorganisms to multiply on the farm, establishing resistance variants so widespread that they cannot be eradicated by veterinary drugs and vaccines. Most traditional chicken farms have become breeding grounds for pathogenic bacteria and viruses. Once the climate changes, chicken farms will become sick, or form regional epidemics, which are characterized by a sharp drop in egg production rate once or twice a year. The epidemic has caused considerable losses to my country's laying hen industry.
All-in and all-out is the basic veterinary system. The main reason why most chicken farms in my country cannot implement all-in and all-out is that my country's laying hen industry lacks a modern industrial system with specialized division of labor, and the economic model and thinking of small farmers in laying hen industry. The basic national conditions have not changed. At present, there are too few professional brooding and brooding farms. There are only 2 professional brooding and brooding farms in Shanghai, and they are all supporting facilities within the enterprise, and they are unable to provide external services.
The main goal of the standardization of the production line of laying hen farms is to guide the chicken farms to carry out specialized production, including specialized breeding farms, specialized breeder farms, specialized brooding farms and specialized egg-laying farms. First of all, it is necessary to guide some new chicken farms to build standardized production lines for chicken farms during the brooding period, or guide some enterprises with multiple chicken farms to reconfigure the functions of the chicken farms when the chicken houses are renovated. With the increase in the number and scale of standardized brooding and brooding farms, the laying hen farms are guided to carry out all-in and all-out chicken flocks during the laying period, and finally implement the specialized division of labor in the laying hen industry.
2 Standardization of industrial knowledge of laying hen farms
The standardization of industrial knowledge is to improve the basic professional knowledge and legal system related to laying hen production of laying hen farm managers, and establish a job certificate system. While emphasizing the hardware construction of large-scale chicken farms, it is also important to standardize the construction of software. Just as feed factories, veterinary drug factories and pet clinics need to have corresponding technical thresholds, the managers of standardized laying hens should also have basic knowledge of laying hen production and food safety. Laying hen farming is a channel for farmers to get rich. The cultural quality of employees in laying hen production in my country is relatively low, and relevant professional knowledge is urgently needed. Laying hen production managers need to continuously learn laying hen production technology, and learn relevant knowledge such as "Animal Husbandry Law" and "Food Safety Law". Knowledge standardization is a major event related to food safety. To realize the specialization of production management personnel is not only to ensure the production level of laying hens, but also to prevent food safety accidents.
The "melamine" incident in the dairy industry a few years ago, the "Sudan red" incident in the laying hen industry, the "medicated chicken" incident in the broiler industry last year, and the recent "Huangpu River dead pig" incident in the pig industry all reflect It is an industrial form in which livestock and poultry producers are generally aware of small farmers and have little legal awareness. If the industrial knowledge training and food safety knowledge education of managers are not strengthened in the industry, once the laying hen farms with higher scale and facility level produce illegally, the greater the harm to the laying hen industry will be. The standardization of industrial knowledge is to implement the job certificate system on the basis of the production technology training and legal knowledge training of chicken farm managers, to guide the large-scale chicken farm managers to carry out continuing education, and to improve the production technology level and legal awareness of the backbone of the industry.
3 Standardization of socialized supporting facilities for laying hen farms
The socialization supporting standardization of laying hen farms is the standardization of the market configuration of feed, vaccine and veterinary drugs, disease detection and control, dead chicken treatment and chicken manure treatment in the laying hen industry. The large-scale construction of livestock and poultry breeding in my country has driven the technological progress and rapid development of the feed industry and the vaccine veterinary drug industry. The standardization and standardization of the feed industry and the vaccine veterinary drug industry are playing an important role in the healthy development of food safety and the laying hen industry. However, standardized industries have not yet formed in the three fields of disease detection and control, treatment of sick and dead chickens and chicken manure. , the main reason is that these jobs require a high level of expertise, large investment, and low tangible product value.
In the early stage of the large-scale construction of chicken farms, the detection and control of epidemic diseases were led by the veterinary stations in districts, counties and towns. With the expansion of the breeding scale, the functions of the veterinary stations have also changed. The clerks and technical waiters assume the responsibility, and the "pharmacy" replaces the "hospital". There is no shortage of experienced veterinarians in society, but due to differences in interests, the abuse of vaccines and veterinary drugs has become a stubborn problem in the industry. Some large-scale laying hen leading enterprises have established an organizational system for disease detection and control, but more standardized scale chicken farms have weak technical strength and are unable to carry out related work. In the laying hen breeding area, at least one epidemic detection and control center needs to be established for the scale of 1 million laying hens, which can carry out antibody monitoring and pathogenic microorganism detection, and help chicken farms to carry out immunization services.
In the era of small farmers' economy, it is not surprising to cook or discard sick and dead chickens at will. This inertia of thinking has caused great difficulties in the harmless treatment of sick and dead chickens, which is one of the main reasons why the epidemic in my country cannot be effectively controlled. There are many technical reasons for the implementation of deep burial of sick and dead chickens in large-scale chicken farms. On the one hand, it is difficult to bury deeply due to limited land resources, and on the other hand, pathogens cause surface water pollution. The reasonable way to completely harmless treatment of sick and dead chickens in large-scale chicken farms is incineration. But there are very few incineration stations serving chicken farms at present. In 2012, Shanghai took the lead in carrying out the incineration of sick and dead chickens, collecting and incinerating the sick and dead chickens from standardized chicken farms. This project will play a major role in improving the technological progress of Shanghai's laying hen industry.
Chicken manure treatment has always been a difficult problem for the laying hen industry. Although large-scale chicken farms have established or commissioned the establishment of chicken manure treatment and production facilities for organic fertilizers, they cannot achieve harmless treatment. Chicken manure treatment plants built by large-scale chicken farms are rarely profitable, and most require government subsidies to maintain normal operation. In addition, it is difficult for most chicken farms with less than 50,000 chickens to set up a chicken manure treatment farm by themselves, mainly selling and sending fresh manure for treatment. In the rainy season, the treatment will flow into the river accidentally, causing environmental pollution. Establishing a chicken manure harmless treatment mode of "pretreatment in chicken farms and deep treatment in organic fertilizer plants" is a necessary way to increase the added value of chicken manure production. One million laying hens require a deep processing workshop of organic fertilizer with a monthly output of 10,000 tons. The harmless treatment of chicken manure not only improves the technological progress of the laying hen industry, but also promotes the technological progress of the planting industry.
4 Standardization of risk control in chicken farms
The standardization of risk control in chicken farms is based on food safety considerations. Antibiotics and other drugs are not used during the laying period. The chickens that have the disease and the chickens that may be infected are actively eliminated, and the eliminated dead chickens receive risk compensation. Establish an effective laying hen production insurance system to give producers a minimum production guarantee, so as to improve the food safety accountability system, and implement the responsibility of production, circulation and supervision.
Food safety is a hot issue at present and in the future. Chicken farms are suppliers of primary agricultural products and eggs, and are bound to become a risky industry, but many practitioners do not know enough about it. The drug residues in eggs come from the needs of epidemic prevention and control, and the dilemma of epidemic prevention and control stems from the high cost of culling sick chickens, and the chicken farms cannot afford the full cost of culling. The current Ministry of Agriculture's pollution-free food egg standard (NY5039-2001) stipulates four types of antibiotic limit indicators, and stipulates that no pathogenic bacteria can be detected in eggs. As the society and the country attach importance to the residues of illegal drugs in milk and poultry meat, the problem of drug residues in eggs will soon be paid attention to. The management of the laying hen industry will inevitably be included in the business scope of the management of the food industry. Drug restrictions will prompt a rapid transformation of the laying hen industry. Building the top-level design of standardized chicken farms in the laying hen industry and standardizing the risk system of chicken farms will help reduce production risks, improve the level of safe production of egg products, and crack down on illegal producers.
The standardization of the chicken farm risk system is based on the entry threshold and exit mechanism of the laying hen industry, and strengthens the construction of basic fields such as disease control conditions, public health conditions, professional knowledge and legal knowledge of management personnel; in traditional laying hen breeding areas And the newly developed new area for laying hens, while attaching importance to feeding facilities, more resources are invested in the construction of epidemic prevention conditions and public safety conditions for laying hens to improve the ability to resist regional risks.
There are many reasons for the difficulty in implementing the production insurance system, among which the insufficient total amount of insurance funds is one of the main reasons. At present, the subsidy standard for sick and dead pigs in Shanghai's pig industry is 80 yuan per head, and pig enterprises still feel that it is not enough. The establishment of the laying hen production insurance system and the scientific layout of the source of the insurance fund are the fundamental guarantee and the key to the function of this system. Only when the insurance money is sufficient can the whole group be culled when a severe infectious disease arrives. To solve the shortage of insurance funds, on the one hand, we hope that the government can increase financial investment, and on the other hand, we need to formulate appropriate policies to guide the transformation of laying hen enterprises. Enterprise transformation includes the integration of capital, technology and market, absorption of external capital or mergers and acquisitions between laying hen farms, and the combination of the powerful or the survival of the fittest. When the laying hen enterprise is strong, it can obtain some insurance funds through financing channels such as venture capital.
5 Conclusion
The top-level design of the standardization construction of laying hen farms is to guide the chicken farms and investors to professionalize and socialize the laying hen industry. It is necessary to teach people how to fish, and to establish appropriate policies and systems to integrate resources and share eggs. Chicken industry risks and improve the level of healthy and sustainable development of the laying hen industry. Modern society pays more and more attention to food hygiene and public environmental safety, and the scale of the laying hen industry is developing faster and faster. Therefore, top-level design is becoming more and more important, and it needs to be considered more from the regional overall layout.

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